Country: Islamic Republic of Iran
Area: 1648195 sq.km
Population: 70,495,782 (November 2006)
Official Religion: Islam
Official Language: Farsi (Persian)
Money Unit: Rial
Iranian year begins from 21 March of each Christian year and ends on the 20th of the next year. To convert the Iranian year into Christian year please add 621 years to the reference year.
correspondence of Iranian and Gregorian calendars:
| Christian Year
|| 1998- 1999
|| 1999- 2000
|| 2000- 2001
Culture and Tourism
Iran is among the old civilizations in the world and for this reason and due to its variety of climates and a number of beautiful natural attractions , it is considered as one of the worlds most important tourism centres . Of the worlds places recognized and registered as "the worlds Civilization Heritage" by UNESCO , four are located in Iran :
Takht-e-Soleyman:( ancient area including Atashkadeh Azargoshastb in the sasanids era) in Tekab, west Azarbayejan.
Takht-e-Jamshid : ( ruins of the former capital of Iran in 2500 years ago) near the city of Shiraz.
Naqsh-e-Jahan square: ( a set of religious and public monuments from safavids era) near the city of Esfahan.
Choghazanbil temple: ( Aeelams imperial city in 3000 years ago) in Haftappeh
Of the most important and famouse historical and attractive places in Iran :
Imam Reza : (Shiit Enghth Imam) Shrine in Mashhad.
Masjid-e-Shaikh Lotfollah: (one of the Islamic architecture masterpieces in Safavids era) in Esfahan .
Vank Cathedral: (one of the most beautiful Iranian churches) in Esfahan .
Atashkadeh Yazd: (the largest and oldest Zoroasterians firetemple) in Yazd .
Arg-e-Bam: (the worlds largest adobe building) in Bam
Maabad-e-Anahita: (the stone temple of Ashkanian era) in Kermanshah
Qaleh-e-Falak -ol-Aflak: (a large military castle in Sasanids era) in Khorramabad .
Taq Bostan: (of stone buildings in the Sasanids era) in Kermanshah
Pasargad: (Cyrus's grave , the founder of Achaemenid dynasty in Iran) near Shiraz .
Naqsh-e-Rostam: (the largest stone building in Sasanids era) near Shiraz .
Gounbad-e-Soltaniyeh: (the world's highest dome) in Khodabandeh , Zanjan .
Pol-e-Khajoo and Syosepol: (of the architecture masterpieces and in Safavids era) in Esfahan .
Banaye Shamsolemareh: (Imperial Palace of Qajar kings) in Tehran .
Tochal Telecabin: (the world's longest telecabin installation) in Tehran .
Attar's Mausoleum: in Neyshabur .
Hafez's Mausoleum: (Hafeziyeh) in Shiraz .
Saadi's Mausoleum: (Saaeediyeh) in Shiraz .
Qabus-ebne- Voshmgir Mausoleum: (the world's highest brick tower) in Gondad-e-Kavus.
Khayam Mausoleum: in Neyshabur.
Ibn-e-Sina Mausoleum: in Hamadan.
Bagh-e-Naderi: in Mashhad.
Karimkhan-e-Zand Mausoleum: in Shiraz .
Baba Taher Mausoleum: in Hamadan.
Arghe Bam: in Bam.
Pasarghad: in Marvdashet.
In addition , other attractive places in Iran include Bazaar-e-Tehran , Bagh-e-fin-e-Kashan, Borj-e-Toghrol in Shahr-e-Rey, Bagh-e-Eram in Shiraz, Bagh-e-Shazdeh in Mahan, Masjid-e-Vakil in Shiraz , Masjid Aqa bozorg in Kashan , Masjid-e-Goharshad in Mashhad, Arg-e-Karimkhan in Shiraz, Darvaz-e-Qoran in Shiraz, Kakh-e-Golestan in Tehran , Masjid-e-Amirchakhmagh in Yazd, Masjid-Imam Khomeini in Esfahan, etc .
The most important natural places in Iran :
Damavand Peak: in north-east of Tehran
Ghar-e-Ali Sadr: in Hamadan (cave)
Crown imperial plains: (fritillaria imperialis) at the foot of peak Dena
Golestan forest: in Bojnurd
Kavir-e-Lut (desert): in the centre of Iran
Lake Ourumiyeh: in Azarbayejan
Anzali marsh: in Anzali port
Lar Plain: in the Mountain Damavand skirts
Moreover , foreign and Iranian tourists travel to different places of Iran and buy various goods as their travel souvenirs , and gifts for their relatives , mostly including saffron , caraway , cotton candy , Gaz (candy) , Suhan (candy), varieties of cookies and chocolates , herbs and plants waters , liquorice , pistachio , caviar, date , rose water , carpet , Gilim , Zilu , handicrafts , inlaid articles , mosaic works and miniature paintings , earthenware and glassware , turquoise , pearl , agate , leather commodities , clothes , etc .
There are many museums , exhibiting the world's and Iranian civilization , culture as well as history , the most important of which are as follows :
Ancient Iran museum: in Tehran
Glassware and earthware museum: in Tehran
Natural history museum: in Tehran
Chehelsoton Museum: in Esfahan
Ganj Ali Khan bathroom museum: in Kerman
Carpet Museum: in Tehran
Complex of Saadabad museums: in Tehran
Anthropology museum: in Tehran
Fine arts: in Tehran
Post museum: in Tehran
National Jewellery Museum: in Tehran
Modern Art Meuseum: in Tehran
Azadi cultural complex: in Tehran
Land and Government
Iran comprises a land area of over 1 . 6 million squar Km (the 17th country in the world by land area). It is located in south west of Asia and is one of the middle-east countries. Iran lies down the northern temperate zone, between latitudes 25 degree north and 39 degree 47' north and between longitude 44 degree 02' east and 63 degree 20' east.
Iran is bounded by Turkmenistan , Caspian Sea , Azerbaijan, and Armenia on the North , Afghanistan and Pakistan on the East , Oman sea and persian gulf on the South , and Iraq and Turkey on the West . Totally Iran has a border of 8731 kms of which 2700 kms go for water borders and 6031 kms for land borders .
The highest point in Iran is Mount Damavand being 5610 metres high
The longest river is the Karun river being 890 kilometres long (only navigable river).
|Form of Government
|Head of State
||supreme religious leader
|Head of Government
|| 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and to eliminate the prime ministry
| Highest Court
|| Supreme Court
| Armed Forces
|| Army, Navy, Air Force, Revolutionary Guard
Mining and Manufacturing
The major industries include oil, gas , petrochemical , steel , textile , chemical , food , car manufacturing , electric and electronic equipment , etc .
The most important household , hand - made and traditional industries contain carpet , Gilim and Zilu , inlaid work and pottery . In the year 1382 of 3125 operating mines , 2747 and 378 mines were run by private and public sectors respectively.
The most important mines include coal , metallic minerals , sand and gravel , chemical minerals , salt , etc. Khorasan Ostan has the most operating mines
Iran is one of the worlds largest oil rich countries and has the second large gas reserves .
The major export products such as mineral products , food products , carpet , pistachio , caviar , skin and leather , handicrafts , clothes etc. follow petroleum , gas, oil and petrochemical products exports.