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Sunday, September 20, 2020
A Glance at Iran

Country: Islamic Republic of Iran

Area: 1648195

Population: 70,495,782 (November 2006)

Capital: Tehran

Official Religion: Islam

Official Language: Farsi (Persian)

Money Unit
: Rial

Iranian year begins from 21 March of each Christian year and ends on the 20th of the next year. To convert the Iranian year into Christian year please add 621 years to the reference year.

correspondence of Iranian and Gregorian calendars:


Iranian Year 1377 1378 1379  1380 1381  1382  1383  1384 
 Christian Year  1998- 1999  1999- 2000  2000- 2001  2001-2002  2002-2003  2003-2004  2004-2005  2005-2006


Culture and Tourism



Iran is among the old civilizations in the world and for this reason and due to its variety of climates and a number of beautiful natural attractions , it is considered as one of the worlds most important tourism centres . Of the worlds places recognized and registered as "the worlds Civilization Heritage" by UNESCO , four are located in Iran :

Takht-e-Soleyman:( ancient area including Atashkadeh Azargoshastb in the sasanids era) in Tekab, west Azarbayejan.

Takht-e-Jamshid : ( ruins of the former capital of Iran in 2500 years ago) near the city of Shiraz.

Naqsh-e-Jahan square: ( a set of religious and public monuments from safavids era) near the city of Esfahan.

Choghazanbil temple: ( Aeelams imperial city in 3000 years ago) in Haftappeh

Of the most important and famouse historical and attractive places in Iran :

Imam Reza : (Shiit Enghth Imam) Shrine in Mashhad.

Masjid-e-Shaikh Lotfollah: (one of the Islamic architecture masterpieces in Safavids era) in Esfahan .

Vank Cathedral: (one of the most beautiful Iranian churches) in Esfahan .

Atashkadeh Yazd: (the largest and oldest Zoroasterians firetemple) in Yazd .

Arg-e-Bam: (the worlds largest adobe building) in Bam

Maabad-e-Anahita: (the stone temple of Ashkanian era) in Kermanshah

Qaleh-e-Falak -ol-Aflak: (a large military castle in Sasanids era) in Khorramabad .

Taq Bostan: (of stone buildings in the Sasanids era) in Kermanshah

Pasargad: (Cyrus's grave , the founder of Achaemenid dynasty in Iran) near Shiraz .

Naqsh-e-Rostam: (the largest stone building in Sasanids era) near Shiraz .

Gounbad-e-Soltaniyeh: (the world's highest dome) in Khodabandeh , Zanjan .

Pol-e-Khajoo and Syosepol: (of the architecture masterpieces and in Safavids era) in Esfahan .

Banaye Shamsolemareh: (Imperial Palace of Qajar kings) in Tehran .

Tochal Telecabin: (the world's longest telecabin installation) in Tehran .

Attar's Mausoleum: in Neyshabur .

Hafez's Mausoleum: (Hafeziyeh) in Shiraz .

Saadi's Mausoleum: (Saaeediyeh) in Shiraz .

Qabus-ebne- Voshmgir Mausoleum: (the world's highest brick tower) in Gondad-e-Kavus.

Khayam Mausoleum: in Neyshabur.

Ibn-e-Sina Mausoleum: in Hamadan.

Bagh-e-Naderi: in Mashhad.

Karimkhan-e-Zand Mausoleum: in Shiraz .

Baba Taher Mausoleum: in Hamadan.

Arghe Bam: in Bam.

Pasarghad: in Marvdashet.

In addition , other attractive places in Iran include Bazaar-e-Tehran , Bagh-e-fin-e-Kashan, Borj-e-Toghrol in Shahr-e-Rey, Bagh-e-Eram in Shiraz, Bagh-e-Shazdeh in Mahan, Masjid-e-Vakil in Shiraz , Masjid Aqa bozorg in Kashan , Masjid-e-Goharshad in Mashhad, Arg-e-Karimkhan in Shiraz, Darvaz-e-Qoran in Shiraz, Kakh-e-Golestan in Tehran , Masjid-e-Amirchakhmagh in Yazd, Masjid-Imam Khomeini in Esfahan, etc .

The most important natural places in Iran :

Damavand Peak: in north-east of Tehran

Ghar-e-Ali Sadr: in Hamadan (cave)

Crown imperial plains: (fritillaria imperialis) at the foot of peak Dena

Golestan forest: in Bojnurd

Kavir-e-Lut (desert): in the centre of Iran

Lake Ourumiyeh: in Azarbayejan

Anzali marsh: in Anzali port

Lar Plain: in the Mountain Damavand skirts

Moreover , foreign and Iranian tourists travel to different places of Iran and buy various goods as their travel souvenirs , and gifts for their relatives , mostly including saffron , caraway , cotton candy , Gaz (candy) , Suhan (candy), varieties of cookies and chocolates , herbs and plants waters , liquorice , pistachio , caviar, date , rose water , carpet , Gilim , Zilu , handicrafts , inlaid articles , mosaic works and miniature paintings , earthenware and glassware , turquoise , pearl , agate , leather commodities , clothes , etc .

There are many museums , exhibiting the world's and Iranian civilization , culture as well as history , the most important of which are as follows :

Ancient Iran museum: in Tehran

Glassware and earthware museum: in Tehran

Natural history museum: in Tehran

Chehelsoton Museum: in Esfahan

Ganj Ali Khan bathroom museum: in Kerman

Carpet Museum: in Tehran

Complex of Saadabad museums: in Tehran

Anthropology museum: in Tehran

Fine arts: in Tehran

Post museum: in Tehran

National Jewellery Museum: in Tehran

Modern Art Meuseum: in Tehran

Azadi cultural complex: in Tehran

Land and Government

Iran comprises a land area of over 1 . 6 million squar Km (the 17th country in the world by land area). It is located in south west of Asia and is one of the middle-east countries. Iran lies down the northern temperate zone, between latitudes 25 degree north and 39 degree 47' north and between longitude 44 degree 02' east and 63 degree 20' east.

Iran is bounded by Turkmenistan , Caspian Sea , Azerbaijan, and Armenia on the North , Afghanistan and Pakistan on the East , Oman sea and persian gulf on the South , and Iraq and Turkey on the West . Totally Iran has a border of 8731 kms of which 2700 kms go for water borders and 6031 kms for land borders .

The highest point in Iran is Mount Damavand being 5610 metres high

The longest river is the Karun river being 890 kilometres long (only navigable river).

Form of Government Islamic republic
Head of State supreme religious leader
Head of Government President
Legislature Consultative Assembly
Voting Qualifications age 15
 Constitution  1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of the presidency and to eliminate the prime ministry
 Highest Court  Supreme Court
 Armed Forces  Army, Navy, Air Force, Revolutionary Guard


Mining and Manufacturing

The major industries include oil, gas , petrochemical , steel , textile , chemical , food , car manufacturing , electric and electronic equipment , etc .

The most important household , hand - made and traditional industries contain carpet , Gilim and Zilu , inlaid work and pottery . In the year 1382 of 3125 operating mines , 2747 and 378 mines were run by private and public sectors respectively.

The most important mines include coal , metallic minerals , sand and gravel , chemical minerals , salt , etc. Khorasan Ostan has the most operating mines


Iran is one of the worlds largest oil rich countries and has the second large gas reserves .



The major export products such as mineral products , food products , carpet , pistachio , caviar , skin and leather , handicrafts , clothes etc. follow petroleum , gas, oil and petrochemical products exports.



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